A Paradigm Shift for First Responders: Preparing the Emergency Response Community for Hybrid Targeted Violence

  • A shooting on the street
  • A fire at a residence
  • An emergency medical technician treating a wounded civilian

Taken separately, each of these incidents hardly gathers national attention. They are the common duties of local police, fire, and emergency medical service (EMS). Responding to these incidents and helping people is “their job.” However, their jobs are no longer just these common incidents. Within the past year, the nation has witnessed a bombing attack on the Boston Marathon,1 the second deadliest school shooting in U.S. history,2 a gunman opening fire in a movie theater after having set explosive booby traps at his residence,3 and firefighters being ambushed by a gunman while fighting a residential fire.4 These Hybrid Targeted Violence events, while rare, are extremely deadly and devastating to the families, the survivors, and the communities.