Counter Criminal Continuum (C3) Policing in Springfield, Massachusetts: A Collaborative Effort between City and State Police to Reduce Gang Violence

The city of Springfield, Massachusetts, with a population of 153,060, is ranked the 12th most dangerous city in America. The North End section of Springfield has seen crime and gang violence increase dramatically over the past decade. Contributing factors included a reduction of police officers caused by economic concerns and in particular the agency’s departure from the community policing model that had existed prior to budgetary reductions in personnel. Property-owning stakeholders opted out of spending for private security and grew accustomed to police responding to every criminal-related issue in their respective areas. Neighborhood residents in the area of concern were primarily low-income renters with no long-term commitment to the neighborhood and a concern of retribution for contacting the police. Traditional law enforcement responses and varied nontraditional methods were employed to encourage stakeholder participation. Despite increased efforts, resident interaction remained minimal.