By Martin Alan Greenberg, Assistant Professor of Criminal Justice, College of Saint Rose, Albany, New York
n 1944, Oliver Cowan, a District of Columbia police officer, remarked: “Many of these kids never had a chance. . . . They never were important in their classes. . . . They get into mischief. Now, in the clubs, they all get an important job to do.”1 Cowan was referring to the members of his new youth program—the 13th Precinct Junior Police and Citizens Corps. Probably unknown to Cowan, about 40 years earlier and more than halfway across the United States, a similar organization had been started by George Richmond, the police chief of Council Bluffs, Iowa.
In recent decades, coinciding with the spread of community policing among law enforcement agencies in the United States, the idea of “junior police” has been reborn. The title of “junior” or “boy police” is seldom used anymore, but there has been a steady reemergence of various types of youth programs under the sponsorship of law enforcement agencies. Most of these programs come under the “Explorer” banner. Explorer programs are a cooperative venture between Learning for Life, a division of the Boy Scouts of America (BSA), and hundreds of police agencies throughout the United States. They are designed to give young men and women between the ages of 14 and 21 a chance to find out more about law enforcement careers. Reportedly, many law enforcement officers serving at the federal, state, county, and local levels have been motivated to undertake their careers due to their experiences as Explorers.
This article considers the nature of past and present types of youth involvement in police work. Some of the current activities of Explorers are highlighted as well as the older varieties of junior police and junior traffic safety patrols, most of which have passed into history. The various attributes of such older programs may still be of value today, especially with regard for the need to check school and juvenile crime.
In 1853, the Children’s Aid Society was established in New York City out of concern for the need to improve the “moral development” of the children of the lower classes. Another important aspect of childhood development is the availability of recreational opportunities, both indoor and outdoor. By the start of the 20th century, the first few steps were undertaken with regard to the establishment of neighborhood play areas. Most of these early efforts were organized by churches and other religious groups. The first notable governmental efforts began in New York City in 1898, when school buildings were opened for evening recreation programs. By 1907, 26 schools in the city had such programs. The Public Schools Athletic League was established in 1903; it had 150,000 participants by 1910. At the same time, concern about the need for more and better-equipped playgrounds for children gave rise to the establishment of the Playground Association of America in 1906. One survey noted that the number of cities with playground programs rose steadily from 36 in 1906 to 414 in 1916 to 748 in 1925.2
The increase in public play areas was accompanied by other types of government-sponsored programs for youth. Taking place within the first two decades of the 20th century, these other types of youth programs were sponsored mainly by local police departments or schools. A few of the first “junior” or “boy police” programs were established in Berkeley, California; Council Bluffs, Iowa; Cincinnati, Ohio; and New York City. The programs usually included instruction in good citizenship and offered recreational opportunities.
Subsequently, safety concerns about automobile traffic gave rise to the first junior school safety patrols. For example, the City of Berkeley Junior Police evolved into one of the nation’s first junior traffic patrols. These patrols typically involved older elementary school children who carried signs to stop traffic in order to safely escort classmates crossing streets. A few of the earliest safety patrols were located in Berkeley; Newark, New Jersey; and Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Chicago Motor Club has been widely recognized as the initiator of the first group of patrollers affiliated with the American Automobile Association (AAA). A typical patrol consisted of 4 to 12 boys, depending on the size of the school and the number of hazardous intersections. It was a common sight to see patrol boys stopping traffic by raising their hands and then escorting groups of students across city streets. They wore white “Sam Browne belts” with badges attached to denote ranks. Some had bright-colored felt armbands. During inclement weather, poncho-type capes and rain hats were added to the uniform. Patrol members were selected for service based on their good grades and leadership qualities.3
The largest municipal junior police organization was pioneered by the New York City Police Department. It was similar to the BSA, except that it had a specific career orientation. The organization was created through the efforts of Captain John Sweeney in his own precinct and subsequently expanded throughout the city. Sweeney met with the youth of his lower East Side Manhattan precinct and shared his vision of turning the “gangs” of boys in each of the districts into more structured groups focusing on the field of police work. The idea was accepted, and the first group consisted of 21 boys. Eventually, other units were established in 32 precincts throughout the city. Each of the units held regular meetings, and the members performed a variety of tasks related to public health and safety. They also participated in games such as dodgeball and attended first-aid training. Metal shields and identification cards were well designed and issued to all members. The receipt of a junior police shield depended on a record of good attendance and required a 15¢ deposit.4 At its peak, the program had an enrollment of 6,000 boys between the ages of 11 and 16.5 There was also a much smaller number of young women (approximately 50) who were selected entirely on the basis of merit to work alongside their male counterparts. They routinely escorted younger children across busy streets, monitored dance halls so that underage girls would not enter, and helped to keep tenement fire escapes clear of debris.6
During their heyday, junior police programs provided opportunities for fostering positive relationships among younger citizens and the police as well as practicing values associated with good citizenship. In some cities, these units evolved into the Police Athletic League (PAL). September 6, 1939, was PAL Day at the World’s Fair in New York City. Over 2,000 PAL members participated in boxing demonstrations, dramatic skits, and fife and bugle corps performances. In addition, a complete play street was set up in the heart of the fair to demonstrate PAL programs. At present, in New York City, more than 60,000 youths participate in the activities of the PAL.7 The Portland Police Department initiated its PAL program to deal with increasing gang violence and drug dealing. The boys and girls in the Portland PAL are coached in boxing, wrestling, football, soccer, martial arts, basketball, track and field, and other sports.8
In 1914, Berkeley’s pioneering police chief, August Vollmer, also organized a junior police program. By 1915, several hundred boys were involved in the program. They participated in military drills and were involved in various community projects.9 One of the earliest known school-based pedestrian safety patrols was initiated in Newark, New Jersey, in 1917. Both boy and girl patrollers were trained to assist children on their way to or from schools and playgrounds.10 Vollmer established the Berkeley Junior Police as a way of including young boys in a program to help keep their neighborhoods free from crime and to involve them in the life of the community. At that time, the city was plagued by a variety of juvenile crime, including the theft of newspapers and milk from front porch containers, as well as the setting of fires in vacant lots. In 1923, Vollmer changed the orientation of his junior police program from spotting crime to protecting children, and the Berkeley Traffic Police Reserve was born.11 In 1923, Honolulu sheriff Charles Rose also began a Junior Traffic Police Officers Program with 33 members of the BSA. There are now over 4,000 junior police helping to safeguard 128 schools in the city and county of Honolulu.12
In the early 1920s, the superintendent of recreation in York, Pennsylvania, established a junior police organization to serve as traffic police in the city’s parks. Each boy was given a badge in the center of which was the name “Junior Police,” around which was the name of the playground. The badges were also color-coded to coincide with only one park in the city. In this way, the badges served to control which boys could patrol a specific park. The boys were examined on their duties and given promotions based on the results of the exams. Boys who passed a “house officer” examination were authorized to go to the homes of children to inquire why they had not been coming to the playground.13 In this manner, the city of York created the first (and perhaps the only) junior truant officer program in the nation.
Flint, Michigan, organized its Junior Safety Patrol Program in 1927. It was supplemented by required daily traffic safety instruction for all of Flint’s schoolchildren. Safety lessons were enhanced through the use of slogan and poster contests. In 1930 at the start of the Great Depression, the safety division of the Flint Police Department reported that about 800 boys were deployed at some 114 intersections throughout the city. The department estimated that the use of the school patrols rather than regular police officers was saving local taxpayers $228,000 each year.14 When Seattle schools opened in September 1928, a similar safety patrol program was begun there. It was sponsored and equipped by the local AAA club. The idea quickly spread around the state. In May 1930, the second annual schoolboy patrol picnic was held at Woodland Park, with approximately 1,000 boys and 150 adults attending.15
By 1931, Milwaukee had an organization consisting of 2,619 junior traffic safety cadets for all of its public and parochial schools. Some schools assigned entire classes of older students to assist in the escorting of younger students across dangerous street intersections. The program was coordinated by the Milwaukee Safety Commission. The Commission issued a pocket-sized handbook detailing the qualifications and duties for student cadets and captains.16
By 1933, there were about 200,000 safety patrollers across the United States, serving in over 1,800 cities and towns.17 Former U.S. president and Nobel Peace Prize laureate Jimmy Carter was referring to his AAA School Safety Patrol participation when he wrote, “One of the proudest moments of my life came when I was given a white canvas belt and a tin badge and sworn in as a School Boy Patrolman. My job was to enforce all the safety precautions but, also, to go to the nearest house for help when our makeshift bus frequently slid into a ditch during rainy weather.”18 Other former safety patrollers include former U.S. president Bill Clinton; former New York City mayor and Time magazine’s 2001 Person of the Year Rudolph Giuliani; two U.S. Supreme Court justices (Burger and Breyer); 21 astronauts; and an array of other luminaries including Olympic gold medalists Bruce Jenner, Lynette Woodard, and Edwin Moses.19
In 1938, nearly two decades after the New York City Junior Police had been disbanded, similar programs were established in Boston, Massachusetts, and Akron, Ohio. The Boston program was initiated by Joseph Timiltry, the city’s police commissioner. Within a year, the Junior Police Corps of Boston was composed of more than 5,000 boys from 12 to 16 years of age. More than 10,000 boys had expressed interest, but with only 15 police officers assigned to supervise, the corps’ resources were limited. The boys accompanied regular police on their tours of duty and were shown the details of police work. Instruction in basic criminal legal procedures was provided as well as classes in wrestling and boxing. After sufficient training, the junior police were assigned to direct traffic at school crossings and to provide supervision at police station Halloween parties and other functions for community youth. The Junior Police Corps had its own rank structure, and any violation of the rules of the corps was brought before a trial board consisting of corps members.20 The Akron program was initiated through the efforts of Lt. John Struzenski, the head of the auto theft division. In a newspaper account, Lt. Struzenski commented on why members received official badges. He said that the badges are “to signify they are members of our second police force.”21
An interesting opportunity to learn about the existence of school safety patrols is to examine old school yearbooks. For example, the yearbooks for Beverly High School in Beverly, Massachusetts, for the late 1930s indicate the functioning of a very active safety patrol organization. Their members were selected by a committee of graduating members and two faculty supervisors. In addition to patrolling the school’s hallways, patrol members ushered at school events, helped to empty the school during fire drills, and assisted with the seating of their fellow students during special assemblies.
World War II
Other varieties of junior volunteer police units were initiated at the time of World War II. Some were geared to the delinquent or predelinquent; others were simply started to promote pride in individual members, their city, and their nation. For example, in Providence, Rhode Island, a junior police organization was launched in 1943. Members learned how to march and parade. Basketball and baseball teams were established in each precinct. Some members even participated in a music program, while others were encouraged to audition for appearances on a Saturday morning junior police radio program. Each half-hour weekly program would begin with the junior police song, and the audience would be encouraged to sing along.22
At the height of World War II in 1942, an important contributor to the field of junior policing was Oliver Cowan, who was assigned to patrol one of the bleakest of all District of Columbia precincts. On his beat, he witnessed firsthand the havoc wrought by members of local street gangs, who vandalized, looted shops, and extorted lunch money from other school children. Cowan approached the leaders of the worst of the gangs and was able to convince them to help him form a junior police force. Cowan adapted the Boys Town plan and applied its methods to poor urban youth. In this way, a Junior Citizens’ Corps with a junior police force component was established. The corps had a mayor, a city council, a chief of police, a newspaper, and a variety of other leaders. One boy who used to break street lamps became the junior superintendent for the protection of street lights. “Cowan made stealing unpopular by the simple psychological expedient of making a hero of each boy who prevented a friend from stealing.”23 By the summer of 1944, the corps consisted of nearly 1,200 boys and more than 300 girls who participated as members of a Girls’ Auxiliary.24
In 1944, William Brogan, an investigator for the San Antonio, Texas, Sheriff’s Office, was inspired to organize a junior deputies program. Brogan had become outraged by a teenage gang fight resulting in dozens of injuries. He was able to bring together the two rival gang leaders and convince them that their actions were disrupting the U.S. war efforts. Many former gang members were among the 800 teens, aged 14 to 18, who formed the new organization—the Junior Deputies of America. San Antonio’s juvenile crime rate was lowered by one-half. Brogan credited his junior deputies with helping to solve various car, bicycle, and horse thefts.25
Another youth program that began in 1944 was the Mississippi Junior State Guard. The purpose of this program was to provide military training for boys less than 18 years of age. Within three years, the program had over 850 boys participating in 14 different high schools. Initially, the program encouraged youth to enter the Mississippi State Guard and, later, the National Guard. Students learned basic military and leadership skills, first aid, and marksmanship and engaged in physical fitness activities. Credits toward high school graduation could be earned by attending the Junior State Guard program. In later years, the program was replaced by the Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps (JROTC) program.26
During World War II, many school clubs and informal neighborhood groups were organized for strictly patriotic purposes. Some of these youth groups were inspired by fictional heroes, and they had large corporate sponsors who advertised in newspapers and magazines, on cereal boxes, and/or in various radio programs. Badges and other identification insignia were often the major components of the premium kits, and other promotional items could be obtained by clipping a coupon or sending in a box top with a small amount of money. A few of the membership clubs created through this advertising included Captain Midnight’s Secret Squadron, the Junior Justice Society of America, Superman’s Junior Defense League, the Lone Ranger’s Victory Corps and Peace Patrol, and Little Orphan Annie’s Junior Commandos. By far, the most popular of these clubs was the Junior Commandos appearing in Annie’s comic strip. The Little Orphan Annie comic strip ran in most major newspapers, and advertisers encouraged young readers to form their own Junior Commando club in order to participate in paper and scrap metal collection drives for the war effort. There were Junior Commando giveaway booklets and small posters. Moreover, songs and clothing were designed for these clubs.27 Many clubs were sponsored by school and civil defense districts. For example, in Indiana County, Pennsylvania, students were encouraged to collect tin cans, hardened cooking fat, and milkweed pods for the war effort. Pods were used in life preservers, and children received 20 cents per bag. Children were also encouraged to grow vegetables in a special section of their family’s victory garden.
Members were given Junior Commando cards. The more tin, fat, and pods children collected, the higher in rank they rose. One student even rose from rank of “private” to “corporal” to “sergeant” to “lieutenant,” and then to “captain” within a year!28
After World War II
In 1946, Phoenix, Arizona, had only a single traffic police officer assigned to school crossings. It also had a record of no traffic accidents involving school children for the previous five years. Instead of traffic cops or other paid workers, the city relied on a corps of Junior Police. They received uniforms from local organizations and their authority to perform traffic duty from the Phoenix Police Department. They watched school crossings, directed traffic, handed out tickets, and performed other tasks associated with traffic control.29
An important breakthrough in the junior police movement occurred in 1947 when the National Sheriffs’ Association (NSA) launched its Junior Deputy Sheriffs’ League. In order to spur its growth, the NSA published and distributed a junior deputy manual. When Grover Combs, the sheriff of Logan County, West Virginia, received his copy in 1949, he announced the program, and more than 2,000 boys from 12 to 17 years of age responded. Successful units of the league were established in such diverse communities as Flagstaff, Arizona; East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana; and Lafayette County, Arkansas. The existence of league chapters provided juvenile courts with an alternative form of community corrections. In 1952, the NSA reported that more than 6,000 juvenile delinquents had been referred to the league. According to Charles Hahn, who was the executive secretary of the NSA in the early 1950s, the basic reason for their success appeared to be “that they offer youth in small towns and rural areas a chance at organized sports: hockey, rodeos, boxing, swimming, judo, rifle shooting.”30 The achievements of the league prompted the state legislature in Arkansas to require each county to employ a regular paid deputy to devote full-time attention to the junior deputy program.31
By the year 2000, the AAA School Safety Patrols had approximately a half million participants. However, due to concerns about civil liability regarding traffic duties, their responsibilities had been severely abbreviated. Moreover, most of the older types of junior police activities in the United States had been replaced by either the Law Enforcement Explorer units or PALs. Recent decades have seen the establishment of numerous junior police academies.
The junior version of an adult Citizens Police Academy is the Junior Police Academy. For over 15 years, such a program has been held for teens in Syracuse, a city in central New York State. The junior police cadets learn about law enforcement history, how laws are made, handgun safety, and how to salute and march. They witness firearm demonstrations and participate in firearm simulation exercises. The cadets also take field trips to meet court personnel and to see prison life. Jack Keller, a New York state trooper who served as an instructor for the 2006 program, has noted that the same youth who join police Explorer programs often attend the academy to obtain further information about law enforcement careers.32
Many different kinds of Explorer programs were initiated in the last quarter of the 20th century by the BSA. No doubt the events of September 11, 2001, and the proliferation of popular television programs depicting the law enforcement profession have contributed to the phenomenal growth in Exploring. Explorer posts have also been established in such related fields as health and hospital careers, medical emergency services, and firefighting. For example, the Fontana, California, Police Department uses Explorers to help provide emergency services.33 In addition, the Imperial Beach Border Patrol Station, which covers 135 square miles of Southern California, currently sponsors an Explorer post that has served as a model for other stations and their posts.
The concept and use of the term “Exploring” dates back to at least 1922. In 1971, young women were admitted to posts as determined by their chartering organization, and the upper age of Exploring was raised to 20 from 17. By the 1990s, girls made up about half of the Explorer membership. The existence of separate law enforcement or police Explorer posts began to emerge in the 1970s. A National Law Enforcement Explorer Conference has been held biennially since 1979.34 Over the years, Explorer posts have undertaken many special projects. For example, in the early 1980s, the Explorer scouts at a U.S. military base in England produced a variety of training films related to crime prevention for use by the base’s security police unit.35
As noted, law enforcement Explorers are usually between the ages of 14 and 21. Program insurance is provided through the BSA’s Learning for Life subsidiary. All units must have agency sponsorship and guidance. Explorers usually receive extensive training in personal conduct, first aid, police procedures, weapons familiarization, crime scene investigation, and a wide range of other specialized police duties. Some police agencies refer to their Explorers as “junior police cadets” or simply as “cadets.” It is common for military ranks to be assigned to members. In 1997, there were 250 youths enrolled in the law enforcement Explorer program in Detroit, Michigan.36
The Manchester, Connecticut, Police Explorers learn about law enforcement careers from certified police officers in a “hands-on” atmosphere. In addition to career development training, program activities provide specific leadership experiences, life skills training, service learning opportunities, and character education. Service learning is practiced through a pattern of activities that encourage Explorers to develop the skills and desire to help others by providing services to the community. Some of the services include community relations as well as crime and injury prevention assignments. They have assisted with traffic control and security at major events such as the Memorial Day parade, the July 4 fireworks display, and the Thanksgiving Day road race. At the same time, the development of good character traits is encouraged in all activities in which Explorers participate. Toward this end, the Explorers are bound by a code of ethics, which is strictly enforced.37
In the summer of 2006, the Kirkwood, Missouri, Police Explorers Post 9131 was awarded Exploring’s highest award. The award, named for William H. Spurgeon III, is the highest recognition for individuals and organizations contributing significant leadership to the Exploring program. The award was developed in 1971 in honor of the man who is regarded as the major leader in the development of special-interest Exploring. Spurgeon was a business executive who personally organized many special-interest posts in the 1960s. The award was bestowed because of the post’s more than 20 years of service to the community. Since its inception in 1986, the post has had more than 160 active Explorers who have engaged in the following activities: firearms training; ride-alongs; dispatch; assistance to D.A.R.E. programs; assistance to community services; classroom training; role-playing scenarios; National Explorer Conferences; Explorer Association Academies; weekly meetings; emergency situation call-outs; and vacation outings. Many of the Kirkwood Police Explorers have built on their interest in law enforcement and moved on to employment in the U.S. Secret Service, county and municipal police agencies, military police, and private security.38
A National Law Enforcement Exploring Conference takes place every two years. The 2004 conference was held in Atlanta, Georgia, and the 2006 conference took place in Flagstaff, Arizona. At these national gatherings, Explorers get to meet other teens from around the world. Side trips are also arranged depending on the location of the conference. For example, in connection with these conferences, various Explorer posts visited Six Flags in Georgia in 2004 and the Grand Canyon and Indian reservations in Arizona in 2006. The conferences provide opportunities for furthering career knowledge and motivation. Scenarios such as building search, first aid, crisis intervention, and so on are played out, and awards are presented at the end of the competitions.39
A unique and valuable Explorer post exists in Darien, Connecticut. Conceived in 1969, it began offering volunteer ambulance service to the Darien community one year later. In 1975, Post 53 officially became the first responders for the town of Darien and provided emergency medical service from 6 p.m. to midnight and served as a backup for Norwalk Hospital. Today, its dedicated high school student volunteers man three fully equipped ambulances 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.40
Throughout the 20th century, many communities have experimented with youth programs involving the assumption of limited types of police work. Youths in both urban and rural settings engaged in important roles in the field of pedestrian safety. The safety patrollers were the most ubiquitous of these youth organizations; they were routinely assigned to traffic and crossing guard duty at the streets adjacent to their elementary schools; keeping the peace on school buses; assisting younger children getting on and off school buses; and maintaining decorum along school hallways. In several towns and cities, some members of the first wave of junior police groups actually engaged in a limited amount of routine street patrol. The junior police members were trained to perform their assignments by local police agencies.
The early–20th century creation of junior police forces in Berkeley, California, and New York City and their modern-day Explorer counterparts exemplify the basic concept of community policing. These efforts have brought communities and police closer together by addressing underlying community problems. Moreover, the early junior police who participated in community projects served as pathfinders for those modern police officers who get out of their cars and walk around business and residential areas for a period of time, ride bicycles, patrol an area on foot, or simply and routinely interact with organized neighborhood groups. According to John Ellison, the former police chief in West Linn, Oregon,
The promises of community policing are many. They include—
- strengthening the capacity of communities to resist and prevent crime and social disorder;
- creating a more harmonious relationship between the police and the public, including some power sharing with respect to police policy making and tactical priorities;
- restructuring police service delivery by linking it with other municipal services; and
- reforming the police organization model by creating larger and more complex roles for individual officers.41
The inclusion of junior police programs can strengthen any department’s efforts to resist and prevent crime and disorder. Such programs may also lead to a more congenial relationship between the youths of a community and the police. Such programs should also be broadened to include other municipal agencies (schools, hospitals, emergency services, and so on). Police agencies should develop these programs as an integral agency function, and they should draw on the knowledge and skills of individual police officers. Through involvement with such programs, individual officers are bound to become more committed, empowered, and analytical.
The concept of community policing has a lot in common with the use of volunteers and the establishment of specific volunteer youth programs. Police who work with youths are promoting public safety and the quality of community life. In addition, community members and groups who work with the police will help influence police objectives and interventions and evaluate them. Under such a mutually advantageous arrangement, the forces marshaled against crime will be greatly strengthened.
In addition, many school districts have begun to recognize the value of having students engage in peer mediation, student courts, conflict resolution, and similar programs. It is interesting to note that for several decades in the 20th century, most efforts aimed at the protection of schoolchildren were carried out by the students themselves under the watchful eyes of their teachers. Today, this type of activity rarely occurs due to the violent nature of many inner-city schools and concerns over school district liability. Nevertheless, if after appropriate screening and training today’s school-age children were offered more opportunities for undertaking such duties, perhaps they might be better prepared to face life’s greater challenges, and our schools might be safer. ■
1Maxine Davis, “The Cop Appeals to the Kids,” The Saturday Evening Post, April 29, 1944, 97.
2Sanford Gaster, “Historical Changes in Children’s Access to U.S. Cities: A Critical Review,” Children’s Environments 9, no. 2 (1992): 34–55.
3“Guarding Five Million Children,” School Life, September 1932, 7, 18.
4Irving Crump, The Boys’ Book of Policemen (New York: Dodd, Mead, 1917), 28, 96–97.
5Samuel Walker, A Critical History of Police Reform: The Emergence of Professionalism (Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books, D.C. Heath, 1977), 84.
6“Juvenile Copettes,” Literary Digest, June 10, 1916, 1735–1736.
7“History: 1914 to 1929: Creation of Playstreets,” Police Athletic League of New York City, http://www.palnyc.org/about_us_history.asp (accessed February 11, 2008).
8Dave Austin and Jane Braaten, “Turning Lives Around: Portland Youth Find a New PAL,” The Police Chief 58, no. 5 (May 1991): 36–38.
9Gene Carte and Elaine Carte, Police Reform in the United States: The Era of August Vollmer, 1905–1932 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1975), 34.
10F. Rosseland, “Nine Years without an Injury to Children on Their Way to or from School,” American City, November 1926, 684.
11“Another History of the Traffic Boys” (Hills Publications, April 4, 1996), http://www.english.udel.edu/dean/oxford/traffichist2.html (accessed February 11,2008).
12Honolulu Police Department. “Junior Police Officers,” www.honolulupd.org/history/museum/mu15.htm (accessed July 30, 2000).
13“Junior Police,” The Playground, January 1922, 631.
14R. Demaroff, “Safety Instruction and Junior Patrols,” American City, April 1930, 156.
15John M. Leggett, “Junior Safety Patrol: A Reminiscence of Loyal Heights Elementary School (Seattle),” essay 7308, http://www.historylink.org/essays/output.cfm?file_id=7308 (accessed February 11, 2008).
16B. Corbett, “Junior Safety Cadets Make Fine Record,” American City, April 1931, 138.
17“Schoolboy Patrols Approved by the President,” American City, October 1933, 70.
18Jimmy Carter, Why Not the Best? (Nashville, Tenn.: Broadman Press, 1975), 35.
19C. King, “The Safety Bunch,” Car and Travel 6, no. 8 (2000): 16–18.
20Joseph Timiltry, “Boston’s Junior Police Corps,” Reader’s Digest, June 1939, 132–133.
21R. Musarra, “Junior Police Unit First Met at the YMCA,” The Beacon Journal (Akron, Ohio), http://ohio.com/bj/news/snap/docs/02578.5.htm (accessed August 13, 2000).
22F. Deusch, “The Providence Junior Police Corps,” Senior Times, http://seniortimes.com/nov97/jrpolice.html (accessed August 13, 2000).
23Davis, ”Cop Appeals,” 96.
25“Bill Brogan’s Boys,” Time, January 1, 1945, 48.
26Barry M. Stentiford, The American Home Guard: The State Militia in the Twentieth Century (College Station: Texas A&M University Press, 2002), 182–183.
27J. Matthews, “The Junior Commandos of WWII,” The Journal for Collectors: Old Toy Soldiers 28, no. 4 (2005): 55–56.
28Clarence D. Stephenson, Indiana County, 175th Anniversary History, vol. 2 (Indiana, Penn.: A. G. Halldin Publishing, 1989), 556.
29“Stop-and-Go Kids,” The American Magazine, November 1946, 164.
30Miriam Lundy, “A Real Copper’s Badge for Junior,” Reader’s Digest, January 1952, 129.
32P. Ramirez, “Junior Police Academy Mixes Work, Fun,” Post-Standard (Syracuse, New York), July 27, 2006, 17.
33R. Schmidt, “Emergency Services Explorers,” Law and Order 42, no. 12 (1994): 37–39.
34“Senior Scout Programs Overview,” http://www.geocities.com/Yosemite/Falls/8826/overview.html (accessed February 11, 2008).
35Mary Sellinger, “Explorers Focus on Crime,” The Police Chief 50, no. 9 (September 1983): 26–27.
36M. Gray, “Junior Cops on the City’s Blocks: Law Enforcement Explorers Gain Leadership, Policing Skills,” Detroit News, March 19, 1997.
37“Manchester Police Explorers: Connecticut Post 077,” http://www.manchesterpoliceexplorers.org/index.htm (accessed December 19, 2006).
38“Kirkwood Police Department: Explorers,” http://www.ci.kirkwood.mo.us/kirk_police/explorers.htm (accessed December 19, 2006).
39See the Manchester Police Explorers Web site at www.manchesterpoliceexplorers.org for more information.
40“History,” Explorer Post 53 Web site, http://www.post53.org/history.html (accessed February 11, 2008).
41John Ellison, “Community Policing: Implementation Issues,” FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin 75, no. 4 (2006): 12.