Samuel L. Feemster, Supervisory Special Agent, Instructor, FBI Academy, Quantico, Virginia; and Joseph V. Collins, Chief of Police, Two Rivers Police Department, Two Rivers, Wisconsin
olice chiefs have a constitutional and moral duty to protect and serve their personnel and communities. Busy police chiefs want the very best expertise in training in order to accomplish this mission. Proper training boosts officer performance, reduces agency liability for poor performance, and mitigates community aversion to the presence of law enforcement. Proper training at multiple levels is the latest signature of effective law enforcement leadership, and it involves the spirits, minds, emotions, and bodies of law enforcement officers, whatever their jurisdictions. Innovative leadership training actualized for the benefit of others embraces and unleashes the spirit of the law. The spirit of the law encompasses the total package of intentional training and mentoring that helps officers derive meaning and purpose from their vocational choice. Such perceptive training is more demanding because it is an internalized weapon not required by the letter of the law. Its genius is the intangible, spiritual dimension of humanity that motivates and sustains the intrinsic rewards of public service. Contextually, spirituality in law enforcement refers to disciplines undertaken in the care and furtherance of the positive development of the human spirit. Religion may be a conduit of spirituality for many, but spirituality in law enforcement does not depend on any dogmatic religious constraints or conformity. Spirituality nurtures the internal cosmos of an officer’s life and work.
The aim of this article is to describe new innovations in police training. First, the authors will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of traditional police training. Second, they will propose multidimensional training as a possible remedy for addressing maladaptive behaviors normalized by police culture and for addressing the weaknesses and gaps of traditional police training. Third, they will probe a major problem facing police organizations worldwide: suicide. Leadership in the twenty-first century will require police chiefs to embrace new innovations in training. Current law enforcement training curricula must be modified and expanded to include disciplines that empower officers to cultivate a critical spirituality. Likewise, law enforcement agencies must develop and implement policies that sustain a spiritual workplace. Meanwhile, communities served by these agencies must create and maintain—through positive contacts and celebrations—reciprocal support for police personnel.
Traditional Training: Strengths
Without a doubt, comprehensive and effective training is the bedrock of officer safety. For example, in addition to the tactical proficiency and required knowledge of civil and criminal protocols, executing a search warrant or a criminal warrant involves, at its most basic level, one human being (or a team of humans) acting upon another human being with intended outcomes of varying degrees, up to and including the use of deadly force. An informed police chief knows that no amount of tactical preparation can fully eliminate the stressors that come with the uncertain realities of people policing people. More importantly, an informed chief accepts the responsibility of proactively addressing the certainties that accompany toxic vocational exposures, as well as the impact of these exposures on the physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual dimensions of police personnel. Innovative chiefs must simultaneously distinguish between officer safety and officer wellness and embrace the undeniable nexus between the two. They must understand that officers who seem physically unscathed after a series of toxic exposures may have interior wounds in need of healing.
The training requisites for officer vitality and officer safety are not one and the same. Figure 1 is based on a survey of seasoned officers participating in discussions on officer wellness at the Federal Bureau of Investigation National Academy (FBI-NA) over the past five years.
Figure 1 demonstrates that seasoned officers place importance on requisites for vocational vitality that are omitted under current curricula focused on officer safety and functional proficiency. It should be noted that the identified requisites for officer vitality have a direct impact on an officer’s spiritual well-being and are, by their very nature, subject to ongoing attack over their vocational life. Unfortunately, none of the academy training courses listed makes officers immune to the effects of toxic exposures such as horrific crime scenes or traffic accidents. Such chronic exposures take a tremendous toll on a person’s emotional and spiritual well-being. In fact, based upon research developed over the course of a decade of FBI-NA instruction directly focused on topics related to officer wellness, few officers have responded enthusiastically to inquiries regarding having received training to prepare them for the exposures of the law enforcement vocation. In other words, while other disciplines have established without doubt that humans are multidimensional, law enforcement training has not yet evolved to the point of addressing the urgent need to prepare officers spiritually.
Across the past decade, many crucial discussions about the strengths and weaknesses of twenty-first century police cadet training have been held at the FBI-NA. Law enforcement executives from around the world concur that there is currently a wide training gap with respect to the requisites for vocational vitality and the skill sets officers are trained in at the academy level. A review of the Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies (CALEA)–approved training curricula in police academies reveals that the primary foci of police cadet training are physical fitness, defensive tactics, firearms, defensive driving, departmental and patrol procedures, constitutional law, court testimony, and report writing. Whether or not the training is basic, intermediate, or advanced depends routinely on the length of the training program, among other factors. Longer training programs typically include instruction on topics such as homeland security, major crimes, crisis intervention, ethics, and death notification.1 Exceptional training that holistically addresses salient aspects of practice, performance, vitality, and longevity in law enforcement is noticeably lacking from the CALEA-approved training requirements for police academies across the nation.
More and more, the most innovative leaders in law enforcement are coming to the realization that this gap in training, though unintended, can no longer be ignored. It reflects a failure of law enforcement to train the whole person in a comprehensive and effective manner. Furthermore, this gap in training contributes disproportionately to the inability of officers to cope with the multitude of external and internal toxins to which they are exposed by not equipping them with the necessary tools to properly cope.
It is no longer acceptable to ignore the current practice of benign neglect: using maladaptive behaviors to fill the void created by the underdevelopment of the spiritual dimension of humanity. To save lives and vocations, this gap in training must be addressed. Throughout the twenty-first century, it will be the role and responsibility of innovative chiefs to ensure that officers receive appropriate training to cultivate the whole person.
Beyond Survival toward Officer Wellness (BeSTOW)
Traditionally, law enforcement training has been one-dimensional. The profession’s best training practices have focused on tactical and mental development while omitting the cultivation of emotional and spiritual intelligences. An innovative chief embraces curricula that intentionally cultivate the whole person: physical, mental, emotional, and spiritual dimensions. Without developing the complete person, all officers are, at some time in their vocational life, likely to be dysfunctional in one dimension or another. Thus, it is probable that officers who are overcome by unpreparedness at the societal as well as the agency level will attempt suicide. Addressing these issues proactively and in a holistic manner is the manifestation of spirituality in law enforcement. Figure 2 demonstrates that spirituality is the source of effectiveness for stress management, ethics, intuitive policing, and emotional intelligence. Spirituality amplifies the effectiveness of these disciplines, and they in turn feed back into the spirituality of a healthy officer. At the same time, spirituality affects the vitality, longevity, performance, and practice of law enforcement by enabling officers to recharge themselves in the spirit of the law throughout their periods of vocational duty. Spirituality enhances practice and performance—the why and the how officers fulfill their sworn responsibilities. Practice is the essential building block of effective, efficient, ethical, and equitable law enforcement. Performance is what we do and how we do it. Given the nexus between practice and performance, spirituality accelerates performance. When dispatched to resolve disputes, investigate fatalities, or secure horrendous crime scenes, officers must rely on fully developed resources across all human dimensions to ensure a competent, sensitive, and professional performance.
Although recent trends show some agencies have introduced curricula addressing the need to cultivate emotional intelligence in some police training, most executive officers enrolled in a new course at the FBI-NA titled Spirituality, Wellness, and Vitality Issues in Law Enforcement Practices said that they never received training regarding the positive impact of a developed spirituality as an antidote for the unavoidable toxicity to which police persons are routinely exposed.2 This gap has been the impetus for new innovations in training.
For the past decade, Supervisory Special Agent Samuel L. Feemster has been exploring possible responses to this unaddressed gap in police training. Based upon discussions with law enforcement executives enrolled at the FBI-NA, the chronology of events in figure 3 has taken place.
Timeline of BeSTOW
- 2001–FBI Satellite Broadcast – Communities Answering the Call (Part I): invited communities to address the needs of first responders.
- 2002–FBI Spirit of the Law Working Group: explored curriculum development to address gaps in training.
- 2003–FBI Spirit of Law Conference: sponsored collaboration between the police, clergy, community representatives, and academicians in order to distinguish the spirit of the law from the letter of the law.
- 2004–FBI Satellite Broadcast – Communities Answering the Call (Part II): invited multidisciplinary leaders to address the needs of first responders.
- 2005–2006–FBI National Academy Survey of four (National Academy) NA sessions, involving 747 responses to document the toxicity of evil exposures in routine law enforcement performance and the urgent need for spirituality in police training.
- 2007–FBI published survey results and developed a conceptual model about spirituality in policing in a series of articles within the FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin.
- 2008–FBI sponsored first symposium on officer wellness. “Beyond Survival: Wellness Practices for Wounded Warriors,” to review exploratory data, amplify experiential findings, and propose a curriculum for the new NA class discussing training the whole person.
- 2009–FBI inaugurated NA course titled Spirituality, Wellness, and Vitality Issues in Law Enforcement Practices.
- 2009–FBI sponsored second symposium on officer wellness. “Beyond Survival: Wellness Practices for Wounded Warriors,” where participants were invited to critique the new NA course and develop preliminary ideas for national research studies.
- 2010–FBI sponsored third symposium reorganized under the rubric “Beyond Survival Toward Officer Wellness – Project BeSTOW” (with an international focus and assessment of a tangible research proposal).
From these events, law enforcement executives have made recommendations to improve training and performance in police agencies through the development and implementation of enhanced standard operating procedures (SOPs) and training curricula that cultivate spirituality in policing. The following robust themes under development present innovative chiefs with ample opportunities to practice spirituality in law enforcement. These themes have far-reaching implications for fostering mutually beneficial relationships among law enforcement, local clergy, and the communities they serve.
The development and implementation of the SOPs require the creation of a critical partnership among law enforcement agencies, the clergy community, and the communities at large that the officers serve. This cannot be regarded as a perfunctory task. The well-being of officers can no longer be regarded as the responsibility of the individual officer or his/her department alone. Nor may the clergy community neglect to cultivate within its parishioners a sense of reciprocal duty to minister to police officers. Similarly, the communities that benefit directly from the services of law enforcement personnel must be allowed to further the well-being of the officers they employ. In view of these realities, law enforcement agencies must reflect in their policies, procedures, and trainings the appreciation that an underdeveloped officer is incapable of maximizing opportunities for service. The clergy community must embrace the law enforcement officer as a co-laborer who is trained, unlike most clergy, to meet the needs of both the ecclesial and secular communities. Most clergy persons are trained to meet the needs of their parishioners only. For this reason, innovative chiefs must bridge the gap between the mission of law enforcement, the chaplaincy, and the local clergy. Communities that depend upon sworn personnel to serve and protect residents must provide sufficient resources to sustain training. They must embrace both the preventive and the maintenance responsibilities regarding the holistic well-being of officers. The implications of being proactive on behalf of communities are innumerable. One of the most obvious benefits, however, is that communities will have access to multiple venues to assist officers with the impacts of their chronic and acute exposures.
Innovative chiefs who actively develop the SOP themes identified in table 1 will thereby ensure the multidimensional training of their officers. Such training should result in an officer being physically, mentally, emotionally, and spiritually fit for duty. Holistic fitness occurs when the spiritual dimension of humanity encapsulates the emotional, mental, and physical dimensions. Anything less, and law enforcement is effectively missing the target. The transformative activity of the spirit will enable officers to address the lack of integrity between practice and the reality of their exposures.
|Table 1: SOP Themes under Development|
|Themes||Curriculum Implications and Practices for Law Enforcement||Curriculum Implications and Practices for Local Clergy||Curriculum Implications and Practices for Communities|
|Spirituality-Optimized Practices||Develop enabling mission and vision statements that promote best practices||Develop worship, teaching, and ministries targeting officers as spiritual civil authorities||Develop and invest in community security through a citizens’ police academy|
|Standard Operating Procedures||Embody the transformative spirit of the law through tangible action steps||Create, establish, and maintain places of refuge for officers through inclusive community embrace||Transform negative community perceptions through practical positive engagement|
|Souls on Patrol||Equip officers with invisible weapons to combat toxic exposure to evil||Discuss “calling” in connection with spirituality and public service||Cultivate positive contacts and celebrations to reduce fear|
|Save our Police||Address and reduce maladaptive behaviors with community collaboration||Establish nontraditional, law enforcement friendly networks for empowerment||Advocate mutual trust and synergy through reciprocal support|
|Serving our People||Nurture vitality through positive networks||Reduce and help manage the impact of toxic exposures on the human spirit||Advocate mutual trust and synergy through reciprocal support|
|Spiritually Oriented Policing||Practice Robert Peel’s principles with critical spirituality||Address chronic exposure to toxicity through connectivity||Enhance community security through meeting officer needs|
|Sources: Beyond Survival: Wellness Practices for Wounded Warriors (conference, Lansdowne, VA, June 15-20, 2008), and Spirituality, Wellness, and Vitality Issues in Law Enforcement Practices (CJ 3660), FBI National Academy Session 236, Samuel L. Feemster, Facilitator. The creative development and implementation of SOPs is the desired end of Spirituality Adapted for Law Enforcement Training (SALT), a forthcoming component of CJ 3660.|
Innovative chiefs appreciate the need to incorporate the fundamentals of other disciplines to enable unexposed officers to apprehend the reality of their spiritual dimension. This can be easily done through classroom instruction, including scenario-based training. Training designed to enable officers to cultivate a critical spirituality should not be dismissed offhand as being inappropriate or unaffordable. Any scenario-based training currently used or currently part of a training curriculum can be modified to include a spirituality component. For example, training designed to teach report writing can require an officer to answer questions beyond the simple rules and mechanics involved in report writing. At the end of an exam, ask officers to answer the following questions: What dimensions of humanity are employed in report writing? Is it just the physical dimension or are there others? How are the mental and emotional dimensions involved? What about the spiritual (see figure 4)?
Multidimensional training, centered in spirituality, connects vitality, longevity, practice, and performance to the role of the Field Training Officer (FTO) and scenario-based training. FTOs are essential to unfolding the careers of the next generation of law enforcement officers. Along with first-line supervisors, they shape the attitude, aptitude, and ultimately the altitude of new recruits under their supervision. Consciously and subconsciously, FTOs mentor and imprint subsequent generations of officers.
When properly executed, scenario-based training is designed to test principles taught in other settings. Incorporating the new innovations in training will provide opportunities for the trainees to cultivate all human dimensions throughout their course of training. FTOs must be selected based upon their understanding that on-the-job training is an extension of scenario-based training. They must be prepared to closely observe the personality characteristics of those they are assigned to lead, identify their deficiencies, and cultivate competencies in their understanding of practice, performance, longevity, and vitality in law enforcement.3 The model in figure 5 illustrates this connection and the FTOs’ role in remedying the gaps of traditional law enforcement training so as to proactively address already existing maladaptive coping behaviors and effectively inoculate against the development of future ones.
On the left side of figure 5 are four personality types commonly found in law enforcement: the disengaged officer; the officer John Wayne; the officer who routinely sacrifices for the good of the whole; and the officer who, despite training, is simply unprepared to deal with the realities of vocational exposures in law enforcement. The authors hypothesize that each of these personality types has the potential to be deficient in understanding a specific component of the spirituality model of policing. It is the role of the officer, the agency, and the FTO to identify the deficiency in understanding and to cultivate a competency through scenario-based training so as to effectively close the gap between the officer and any misunderstanding regarding the importance of practice, performance, vitality, and longevity in law enforcement.
Using the problem of suicide in law enforcement, the following section elaborates further on the mechanics of this proposed model of training.
Rethinking Suicide in Law Enforcement
Suicide is a lethal threat to the integrity and credibility of the law enforcement community. Officers attending the FBI-NA commonly report that their agencies have no protocols regarding funeral or memorial services for officers who take their own lives while on active duty. In the aftermath of a departmental suicide, the impact on the surviving officers and agencies is so profound that conversations about these events are informally censored. Some mitigate this omission by suggesting that the officers’ families often do not want an official ceremony in cases of suicide. The absence of such ceremonies can add more guilt to the surviving officers and agencies already struggling with irrational “I didn’t see it coming” thinking and the untimely loss.
Current discussions about the accuracy of reporting, reasons for reporting practices, and even discussions about last rites do not address how to prepare officers to move beyond the point of considering taking their own lives. One reason why the law enforcement community has difficulty arriving at a definitive consensus about the best practices for training, particularly with respect to the topic of police suicide, may be its reluctance to probe the multiple pathways that are preludes to suicide. The negativity associated with the act of suicide, compounded by the image of law enforcement invincibility, prevents law enforcement leaders from considering and therefore remediating the varying circumstances that may give rise to suicide in the first place.
Over the course of many FBI-NA classes facilitated by Supervisory Special Agent Feemster, the discussions of police suicide have disclosed that conversations about suicide are significantly underdeveloped within the law enforcement culture. Innovative chiefs and the communities they serve need to create environments in which intentional discussions of the risk factors for suicide and the complicated grief that follows can be developed and continued until a healthy balance is reached. Innovative police chiefs must understand that creating and maintaining an agency that acknowledges and advances holistic development may enable officers to cultivate appropriate coping strategies. Any remedy must stir officers to enjoy a successful career full of longevity and vitality.In a classic study of suicide (see figure 6), sociologist Emile Durkheim found that at the root of all types of suicide is a varying degree of imbalance with respect to social integration and moral regulation.4 As a result researching the differing rates of suicide among Protestants and Catholics, Durkheim identified four types of suicide: egoistic, altruistic, anomic, and fatalistic. While much of Durkheim’s study makes reference to the “social suicide rate” and how it can vary in terms of different social concomitants, this article aims to look at suicide, specifically within law enforcement and to give special consideration to the responsibilities and constraints afforded to individuals by the specialized training required of their respective disciplines, professions, or vocations. The law enforcement profession requires not only specialized tactical training, but also training in how to save lives. It is through this training that officers become proficient at responses to the human condition and natural catastrophes that are, arguably, abnormal. A poignant example of this is running toward the gunshot rather than away from it.
Durkheim says that certain suicides, such as egoistic suicide, are characterized by excessive individuation, which is the result of a breakdown or a decrease of social integration, while in other suicides, such as the altruistic suicide, the level of integration is high and the lack of individuation low.5 More important than understanding the specifics of Durkheim’s suicide typologies, however, is understanding the nature of the social causes that contribute to them. Neither of the social integration extremes that Durkheim delineates is good. Innovative police chiefs, along with their supervisory staff, need to be keenly aware of the personality characteristics of the officers they are assigned to lead and of the place that those officers occupy in the social fabric of the organization.6 Such awareness is indispensable in allowing chiefs and supervisory staff to proactively identify and address potential risks. With accurate foresight, police leaders should be able to find room and means for moderation and balance.
While proficiencies developed through traditional law enforcement training to support this learned behavior do provide officers with the tools to impact the lives of those they serve, these same proficiencies do not always provide the officer with the resources necessary to address the impact of these behaviors on themselves. Consequently, officers are oftentimes ill-prepared for the impact of these unavoidable toxic exposures that come with serving the public, oftentimes in their darkest hours. While it is essential to note that the data regarding police officer suicide are, for a variety of reasons, not concrete, the authors argue that this training deficit clearly manifests itself in the alarmingly high rate of suicide among trained law enforcement personnel when compared to line of duty deaths.7 In fact, the law enforcement family loses an officer to suicide every 17 to 23 hours.8
The conditions for suicide among law enforcement are extraordinarily complex and are likely different depending on the personality type of the officer. Drawing on Durkheim’s social theory on suicide and the authors’ combined 53 years of law enforcement experience, the authors have identified four personality types in law enforcement (see table 2) that generally reflect a deficiency in the awareness and understanding of one or more of the following components of any officer’s vocational life: practice (why and how); performance (how and task); vitality (resilience and where); and longevity (vocational life and nurturing).
|Officer Personality Type||Misunderstood component of spirituality model to be addressed|
|Disengaged||Vitality (resilience and where): Disengaged officers may fail to understand the meaning and purpose of their vocational lives. They simply go through the motions. The disengagement is a negative coping mechanism that drains their vocational vitality and impacts their resilience. The result is that the “where” fails to matter. The officer fails to extract meaning and purpose from law enforcement anywhere and everywhere.|
|John Wayne||Performance (how and task): John Wayne officers tend to be obsessed with the performance of their duties to the point of operating as a posse of one. This disregard and failure to understand their place in the social fabric of a team when performing a task is dangerous and often leads to the violation protocol. This type of officer fails to understand the proper “how” of performing law enforcement.|
|Falls on the sword||Practice (why and how): These officers are altruistic people. They are always willing to sacrifice themselves for the benefit of others (the fraternity and organization). While fraternity is important, it is equally important for these officers to understand that, particularly in the case of suicide, an untimely departure will negatively impact not only their family but also their entire department. This type of officer fails to understand the proper “why” and “how” of vocational life.|
|Unprepared for toxicity||Longevity (vocational life and nurturing): In spite of academy training, these officers are unprepared to deal with the toxicity of vocational exposures. They may have met the requisites for academy training, but they have not obtained the requisites for vocational vitality. The longevity of their vocational lives is at risk from the failure to nurture the human spirit. This type of officer is also at risk for developing negative coping mechanisms early on.|
While not every police officer that has one of these personality types will attempt suicide, innovative chiefs need to be aware of the behaviors associated with these personality types in order to proactively address the issue. Suicide in law enforcement occurs when officers are no longer able to process the realities of their toxic exposures, particularly in light of departmental policy that for whatever reason fails to proactively address the vocational risks of law enforcement on officer wellness. Under these conditions, the irrational fear of failing the agency, the community, and the self overwhelms many officers and ultimately leads to self-inflicted death.
Given this reality, innovative police chiefs are presented with opportunities to develop and implement policies, procedures, and training to create and maintain a spiritual workplace that prioritizes officer wellness. Three proactive measures to accomplish this are to
- design training that identifies and remedies internal and external conditions, practices, and performances that exacerbate an already present deficit between training and work exposures;
- require the agency to collaborate with candidates to ensure that a personal wellness regimen is in place upon hire; and
- ensure community participation in this innovative measure to remedy the impacts of this untrained toxicity.
In addition to exposing officers to the benefits of holistic wellness through classroom curricula, including scenario-based training, innovative chiefs must train their internal leadership to ask open-ended questions based on known information to elicit responses that lead to opportunities for intervention. For example, a chief might initiate the following types of inquiry: “Officer Smith, I know you’ve responded to four fatalities in the last two weeks. What wellness program do you follow? How is your wellness program helping you cope? We are prepared to help you moderate your program if need be.” The question about the wellness program is a key component to the intervention and prevention of suicide. Ideally, a wellness program should be identified at the point of hire, but if an applicant does not have one in place, it is the responsibility of innovative chiefs to develop and implement policy that assists prospective hires with the creation of a personal wellness program. An effective personal wellness program should enable officers to process the realities of their exposures so that they continue to derive purpose and meaning from their chosen vocation. It also should enable them to access resources for maintaining vitality over the course of their career exposures.
Effective leadership in the twenty-first century requires police chiefs to embrace new innovations in training. Effective leaders are perceptive, innovative, and creative; they think outside the box; and they are, most importantly, proactive. All of these traits reflect leadership as the activity of the spirit in law enforcement. In enforcing the letter of the law, chiefs must not negate its power by neglecting the spirit of the law. For many, it is this spirit of calling and commitment to serve others that drew them to the vocation in the first place.
Exemplary leadership dictates that chiefs intentionally enhance the welfare of all law enforcement personnel under their supervision. Police officers are being called upon to perform an ever-increasing range of activities while performing their jobs. Officers cannot choose whether or when they face evil; it chooses them. When called, officers must respond. It is the requirement of police chiefs, as leaders, to ensure that when their officers face these situations, they are equipped not only with the physical tools to handle the situation, but also the psychological tools to make the appropriate decisions during the call.
Given that the ultimate goal of law enforcement is to uphold the law and to serve others, it is important that training be designed to meet the total set of requisites for vocational vitality and to cultivate core dimensions that allow officers to preserve themselves while serving others. Police chiefs are obligated to have provided the necessary training for emotional survival prior to the call and after. Spirituality must also carry through to the lives of officers while off duty. Police chiefs must be able to send their officers home as whole persons and not something less than their families deserve at the end of the day and at the end of their careers. ■
1The Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies Inc., http://www.calea.org (accessed August 27, 2010).
2Collective understanding provided by 160 executive officers enrolled in Spirituality, Wellness, and Vitality Issues in Law Enforcement Practices during the National Academy Sessions 236–242, in response to activities 1a, 1b, and 2a.
3Dell P. Hackett and John M. Violanti, Police Suicide: Tactics for Prevention (Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd., 2003).
4Emile Durkheim, Suicide: A Study in Sociology (New York: The Free Press, 1951).
6Hackett and Violanti, Police Suicide: Tactics for Prevention.
7Gary Fields and Charisse Jones, “Code of Silence Doesn’t Help,” USA Today, June 1, 1999, 1A–2A.
8Robert E. Douglas, “Introduction to National Police Suicide Foundation ‘Police Suicide Awareness Train-the-Trainer’ Program” (lecture, MD Anderson Cancer Research Center, Houston, Texas, September 21–September 23, 2009; sponsored by the Houston Police Department in conjunction with the University of Texas).
Please cite as:
Samuel L. Feemster and Joseph V. Collins, "Beyond Survival toward Officer Wellness (BeSTOW): Targeting Law Enforcement Training," The Police Chief 77 (November 2010): 34–43,
http://www.nxtbook.com/nxtbooks/naylor/CPIM1110/#/34 (insert access date).