Guest Editors: Peter A. Modafferi, Chair, IACPPolice Investigative Operations Committee, and Chief of Detectives, Rockland Country District Attorney's Office, New City, NY,and Kenneth A. Bouche, Colonel, Illinois State Police, Springfield, IL
In order to address past inadequacies in our nation's intelligence process, the U.S. Department of Justice's Office of Justice Programs (OJP), at the request of the International Association of Chiefs of Police (IACP), authorized the formation of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global) Intelligence Working Group (GIWG), one of several issue-focused subgroups of the Global Advisory Committee, to develop a collaborative intelligence sharing plan.1
The GIWG supported the development of the National Criminal Intelligence Sharing Plan (NCISP) as a blueprint to assist law enforcement personnel in their crime-fighting, public safety, and counterterrorism efforts. The plan acknowledged that officers, investigators, and analysts working throughout the United States are the first line of prevention and defense against terrorism and crime. The NCISP recognized the importance of local, state, and tribal law enforcement agencies as a key ingredient in the nation's intelligence process and called for the creation of the CICC to establish the linkage needed to improve intelligence and information sharing among all levels of government. Made up of members from law enforcement agencies at all levels of government, the CICC was created to provide advice in connection with the implementation and refinement of the NCISP. Members of the CICC serve as advocates for local law enforcement and support their efforts to develop and share criminal intelligence for the purpose of promoting public safety and securing our nation. These goals are attainable and necessary for the continued safety of U.S. citizens and visitors.
Voice for Local Law Enforcement
Because of the indispensable part that state and local law enforcement play in homeland security, they must also have a voice in the development of policies and systems that facilitate information and intelligence sharing. The CICC is in the unique position, because of the makeup of its membership and its function within the nation's intelligence landscape, to serve as that voice for all levels of law enforcement agencies, which it does by advising the U.S. attorney general on the best use of criminal intelligence to keep our country safe. The council will work to ensure that every chief, sheriff, and law enforcement executive has a stake in this effort so that all law enforcement and homeland security agencies gain an understanding of their role in the development and sharing of information and intelligence. The advice of members of the CICC has also been sought by the secretary of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), members of Congress, and representatives of state government. The CICC is cochaired by Colonel Kenneth Bouche, Illinois State Police, and Chief Joseph M. Polisar, Garden Grove, California, Police Department. Additional CICC members include the following:
- Maureen Baginski, Executive Assistant Director, Intelligence Directorate, Federal Bureau of Investigation
- William Berger, Chief, Palm Bay, Florida, Police Department
- William Bratton, Chief, Los Angeles, California, Police Department
- Michael Carona, Sheriff, Orange County, California, Sheriff's Department
- Melvin Carraway, Superintendent, Indiana State Police
- Edward Flynn, Secretary, Massachusetts Office of Public Safety
- Tom Frazier, Executive Director, Major Cities Chiefs Association
- Harold Hurtt, Chief, Houston, Texas, Police Department
- Frank Libutti, Undersecretary, Information Analysis and Infrastructure Protection, Department of Homeland Security
- Peter Modafferi, Chief of Detectives, Rockland County, New York, District Attorney's Office
- Daniel Oates, Chief, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Police Department
- Thomas O'Connor, Chief, Maryland Heights, Missouri, Police Department
- Kathleen O'Toole, Commissioner, Boston, Massachusetts, Police Department
- Russell Porter, Assistant Director, Iowa Department of Public Safety
- Richard Randall, Sheriff, Kendall County, Illinois, Sheriff's Office
- Kurt Schmid, Senior Policy Advisor, Office of National Drug Control Policy
- Richard Stanek, Captain, Minneapolis, Minnesota, Police Department
Collaborative Efforts Result in Useful Products
The CICC and its research partner, the GIWG, routinely collaborate with the nation's premier law enforcement agencies and organizations, and valuable products have been developed for law enforcement to use in their daily crime-fighting efforts. Collaboration such as this also promotes a positive environment allowing law enforcement to embrace new ideas while providing and ensuring feedback at all levels. The CICC and GIWG members have been involved with several high-profile projects, including the following:
Presidential Executive Order 13356 Implementation Plan: In October 2004, the DOJ, in partnership with the DHS, requested that the CICC recommend several local and state law enforcement officials to assist with the implementation plan for Presidential Executive Order 13356, Strengthening the Sharing of Terrorism Information to Protect Americans. The representatives served as the focal point for coordination of all DHS and DOJ activities related to the provision of local and state law enforcement input into the implementation plan.
The NCISP Minimum Training Standards: During the first six months of 2004, the GIWG collaborated with a subgroup of DOJ's Counter-Terrorism Training Coordination Working Group (CTTWG) to develop minimum training standards for the six training classifications outlined in the NCISP: intelligence analyst, intelligence manager, law enforcement executive, basic recruit and in-service, intelligence officer/collector, and train-the-trainer. The report, finalized in September 2004, contains standards for each classification, time allotments for each standard, and suggested curriculum. The standards were incorporated into the resource library of the NCISP, and they are also posted on the OJP Web site, (www.it.ojp.gov/global).
Chief Executive Curriculum: In addition to minimum training standards, the CICC/GIWG facilitated the development of curriculum for the executive-level training classification. The curriculum is consistent with the minimum training standards outlined in the NCISP. In February 2004, a focus group, including participants from the GIWG and other intelligence experts, laid the foundation for a four-hour executive briefing course that includes information regarding the NCISP, intelligence-led policing, basic intelligence, legal and privacy issues, and available resources. A pilot course of this curriculum was presented in October 2004. Based on the feedback received from the pilot course, the curriculum is being refined and will be delivered in early 2005.
Law Enforcement Analytic Standards: In October 2003, the International Association of Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysts (IALEIA), in consultation with the CICC, GIWG, and various other law enforcement organizations' representatives, began developing analytic standards as recommended in the NCISP. This effort culminated in the production of Law Enforcement Analytic Standards, a resource booklet containing 25 standards-seven for analysts and 18 for analytic products. The booklet was published in November 2004 and distributed to hundreds of law enforcement officials at the annual IACP conference and other venues. As recommended in the NCISP, law enforcement agencies should adopt these standards and apply them to the intelligence functions performed by their agency personnel. Copies of the booklet may be obtained by writing to IALEIA at email@example.com or by accessing the NCISP resource library posted on the OJP Web site, (www.it.ojp.gov/global).
Law Enforcement Intelligence Unit (LEIU) Audit Checklist: The NCISP recommends periodic audits of criminal intelligence operations and files to ensure guidelines and other regulations are put into practice. The LEIU Audit Checklist was developed in support of the NCISP. The checklist can assist law enforcement executives with conducting a review of their agency's criminal intelligence function. Law enforcement agencies that use the checklist can demonstrate their commitment to protecting the constitutional rights and the privacy of individuals, while ensuring the operational effectiveness of their criminal intelligence function. The audit checklist was completed in September 2004 and is available by contacting LEIU at firstname.lastname@example.org. The checklist has been included in the resource library on the NCISP CD-ROM in the same manner as the LEIU File Guidelines, the IACP model policy on criminal intelligence, and other documents referenced in the NCISP.
Aggressive Pursuit of Its Mission
Though the CICC has accomplished a great deal in its first eight months, the work that it has done and the collaborative efforts it has been involved in are only the beginning. Crime and terror have not ceased; in fact, criminals and terrorists have become more sophisticated. In President Bush's remarks regarding intelligence reforms on August 2, 2004, he indicated that "our goal is an integrated, unified national intelligence effort." Armed with the responsibility of being the voice for local, state, and tribal law enforcement agencies, with regard to such issues, the CICC will continue to be aggressive in the pursuit of its mission to support the Global Advisory Committee in being responsive to the needs of local law enforcement as we work toward our goal of "an integrated, unified national intelligence effort" in order to keep citizens safe. For additional information on the NCISP or the CICC, please call the CICC support team at 850-385-0600, extension 325. ■
1 The Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global), operating under the program management of the OJP, serves as an advisory body to the federal government-specifically through the U.S. attorney general and the assistant attorney general in charge of OJP-to facilitate standards-based electronic information exchange throughout the justice and public safety communities. The Global Advisory Committee (GAC) is composed of key personnel from local, state, tribal, federal, and international justice and public safety entities and includes agency executives and policymakers, automation planners and managers, information practitioners, and end users. GAC membership reflects the involvement of the entire justice community in information sharing. Global working groups, consisting of committee members and other subject-matter experts, expand the GAC's knowledge and experience. These groups are formed to address timely issues impacting justice information sharing. For additional information on Global, please visit (www.it.ojp.gov/global/).