The Effects of Active Shooter Resilience Training Programs on College Students’ Perceptions of Personal Safety

Public safety and higher education leaders have implemented a variety of strategies to develop more resilient communities to prevent or mitigate the harm that comes from targeted violence. These strategies include student educational programs, threat identification and assessment programs, and active shooter response training exercises for public safety officers. The federal government, the private sector, and academia have historically recognized a need to raise awareness of active shooter threats and suggest strategies to better prepare and protect potential victims from harm. Interest in these educational programs has grown with each incident of hybrid and conventional targeted violence.1 Research into the actual and perceived effectiveness of these safety education strategies is emerging and in its infancy. The absence of such research was a motivating factor in the identification and analysis of programs that are currently available.