August Vollmer, during the early twentieth century, as chief of police in Berkeley, California, argued for the professionalism of police officers through the use of scientific training and methods of investigation. Since Vollmer, police executives have become convinced, more than ever before, that professionalism can be achieved through the acquisition of education.
A number of law enforcement professionals agree that training and education should become more integrated. Authors David L. Carter, Allen D. Sapp, and Darrel W. Stephens made the prediction that “the future of policing depends on the future of higher education . . . cooperation between academia and law enforcement,” therefore “shaping the curriculum for law enforcement in the 21st century.